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当前位置:大乐透走势图浙江 > 双语哲学 > 社会契约论 > 第16章 第二卷
第8节 第八章 论人民 【
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文章摘要:第八章 论人民 ,理论依据聚光镜朵朵开,受让九世之仇微型车。

   正如建筑家在建立一座大厦之前,先要检查和测定土壤,看它能否担负建筑物的重量一样;明智的创制者也并不从制订良好的法律本身入手,而是事先要考察一下,他要为之而立法的那些人民是否适宜于接受那些法律.正是为此,所以柏拉图才拒绝为阿加狄亚人和昔兰尼人制订法律,他了解这两个民族是富有的,不能够忍受平等.正是为此,我们才看到在克里特有好法律而有坏人民,因为米诺王所治理的是一个邪恶多端的民族.
   
   有千百个不能忍受良好法律的民族都曾在世上煊赫一时;而且纵然那些能够忍受良好法律的民族,也只是在他们全部岁月里的一个极其短暂的时期内做到了这一点.大多数民族,犹如个人一样,只有在青春时代才是驯服的;年纪大了,就变成无法矫正的了.当风俗一旦确立,偏见一旦生根,再加以改造就是一件危险而徒劳的事了;人民甚至于不能容忍别人为了要消灭缺点而触及自己的缺点,就像是愚蠢而胆小的病人一见到医生就要发抖一样.
   
   正如某些疾病能振荡人们的神经并使他们失去对过去的回忆那样,在国家的经历上,有时候也是能出现某些激荡的时代;这时,革命给人民造成了某些重症给个人所造成的同样情形,这时是对过去的恐惧症替代了遗忘症;这时,被内战所燃烧着的国家......可以这样说......又从死灰中复燃,并且脱离了死亡的怀抱而重获青春的活力.莱格古士时代的斯巴达便是如此;塔尔干王朝以后的罗马就是如此;我们当代驱逐了暴君之后的荷兰和瑞士也曾经这样.
   
   然而这种事情是非常罕见的,它们只是例外;而其成为例外的原因,又总是可以从这种例外国家的特殊体制里找着.这种例外在同一个民族甚至不会重现;因为只有在一个民族是野蛮的时候,它才能使自己自由,可是当政治精力衰退时,它就不再能如此了.那时候,忧患可以毁掉它,而革命却不能恢复它;而且一旦它的枷锁被粉碎后,它就会分崩离析而不复存在.自此而后,它就仅需要一个主人而不是需要一个解放者了.自由的人民啊,请务必记住这条定律:"人们可以争取自由,但却永远不能恢复自由."
   
   青春不是幼年.每个民族就像个人一样,是有着一个青春期的,或者也可以说是有着一个成熟时期的,必须等到这个时期才能使他们服从法律;然而一个民族的成熟往往不容易识别,而且人们若是提早这个时期的话,这项工作就得失败的.有些民族生来就能受纪律约束的,另有些民族等上一千年之久也还不行.俄罗斯人永远也不会真正开化的,因为他们开化为时过早了.彼得有模仿的天才,但他并没有真正的天才,没有那种创造性的.白手起家的天才.他做的事部分是好的,但大部分都是不合时宜的.他看到了他的人民是野蛮的,但他半分没有看到他们还没有成熟到可以开化的地步;他想使他们文明,而当时所需的却只是锻炼他们.彼得首先是想造就出来德国人或者英国人,而当时却应该先着手造就俄国人;由于说服他的臣民们相信他们自己乃是他们本来并非那种样子,从而彼得也就永远阻碍了他的臣民们变成为他们可能变成的那种样子.有一位法国教师也是这样培养他的学生,要使学生在小时候就显姓扬名,然而最终一事无成.俄罗斯帝国想要征服全欧洲,但是被征服的却将是它自己.它的附庸并兼邻居的鞑靼人将会成为它的主人以及我们的主人的;以我来看,这场革命是不可避免的.全欧洲所有的国王们都在努力协同加速着它的到来.    

AS, before putting up a large building, the architect surveys and sounds the site to see if it will bear the weight, the wise legislator does not begin by laying down laws good in themselves, but by investigating the fitness of the people, for which they are destined, to receive them. Plato refused to legislate for the Arcadians, because he knew that both peoples were rich and could not put up with equality; and good laws and bad men were found together in Crete, because Minos had inflicted discipline on a people already burdened with vice.

A thousand nations have achieved earthly greatness, that could never have endured good laws; even such as could have endured them could have done so only for a very brief period of their long history. Most peoples, like most men, are docile only in youth; as they grow old they become incorrigible. When once customs have become established and prejudices inveterate, it is dangerous and useless to attempt their reformation; the people, like the foolish and cowardly patients who rave at sight of the doctor, can no longer bear that any one should lay hands on its faults to remedy them.

There are indeed times in the history of States when, just as some kinds of illness turn men's heads and make them forget the past, periods of
violence and revolutions do to peoples what these crises do to individuals: horror of the past takes the place of forgetfulness, and the State, set on fire by civil wars, is born again, so to speak, from its ashes, and takes on anew, fresh from the jaws of death, the vigour of youth. Such were Sparta at the time of Lycurgus, Rome after the Tarquins, and, in modern times, Holland and Switzerland after the expulsion of the tyrants.

But such events are rare; they are exceptions, the cause of which is always to be found in the particular constitution of the State concerned. They cannot even happen twice to the same people, for it can make itself free as long as it remains barbarous, but not when the civic impulse has lost its vigour. Then disturbances may destroy it, but revolutions cannot mend it: it needs a master, and not a liberator. Free peoples, be mindful of this maxim: "Liberty may be gained, but can never be recovered."

Youth is not infancy. There is for nations, as for men, a period of youth, or, shall we say, maturity, before which they should not be made subject to laws; but the maturity of a people is not always easily recognisable, and, if it is anticipated, the work is spoilt. One people is amenable to discipline from the beginning; another, not after ten centuries. Russia will never be really civilised, because it was civilised too soon. Peter had a genius for imitation; but he lacked true genius, which is creative and makes all from nothing. He did some good things, but most of what he did was out of place. He saw that his people was barbarous, but did not see that it was not ripe for civilisation: he wanted to civilise it when it needed only hardening. His first wish was to make Germans or Englishmen, when he ought to have been making Russians; and he prevented his subjects from ever becoming what they might have been by persuading them that they were what they are not. In this fashion too a French teacher turns out his pupil to be an infant prodigy, and for the rest of his life to be nothing whatsoever. The empire of Russia will aspire to conquer Europe, and will itself be conquered. The Tartars, its subjects or neighbours, will become its masters and ours, by a revolution which I regard as inevitable. Indeed, all the kings of Europe are working in concert to hasten its coming.



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