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当前位置:大乐透走势图浙江 > 双语哲学 > 社会契约论 > 第25章 第一卷
第6节 论总需追溯到一个 最初的约定 【
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本文地址:http://www.dmhes.com.cn/book/1/22-746-lunzongxuzhuisudaoyige_zuichudeyueding.html
文章摘要:论总需追溯到一个 最初的约定 ,震聋发聩汗出浃背配电柜,闭门自守承销商如天之福。

   :即使是我接受了以上我所曾反驳过的一切论点,专制主义的拥护者们也还是无法前进一步的.镇压一群人与治理一个社会,这两者之间也永远存在极大的区别.即使分散着的人们一一相继地被某个个人所奴役,不管他们的人数可能有多少,我在这里就只看到一个主人和一群奴隶,我根本就没有看到人民和他们的首领;那只是一种聚集,假如人们愿意这样称呼的话,而不是一种结合;这儿既无公共幸福,也无政治共同体.这个人,即使他奴役了半个世界,也永远只是一个人;他的利益脱离了别人的利益,就永远只是私人的利益.如果这个人最后灭亡,他的帝国也就随之分崩离析,如同一棵橡树被火焚烧后就消解而化为一堆灰烬一样.
   
    格老秀斯说,人民可以把自己奉送给一位国王.然而,照格老秀斯的说法,在把自己奉送给国王之前,人民就已经是人民了.这一奉送行为的自身就是一种政治行为,它假设有一种公共的意愿.所以,在考察人民选出一位国王这一行为以前,最好还是先考察一下人民是通过什么方式而成为人民的.因为后一行为必然先于前一行为,所以它才是社会的真正基础.
   
    事实上,如果根本就没有事先约定,除非选举真是全体一致的,不然,少数人服从多数人的抉择这一义务又从何而来呢?同意某一个主人的一百个人,又怎么有权为根本不同意这个主人的另外十个人进行选举呢?多数表决的规则,本身就是一种约定的确立,并且假定至少是有过一次全体一致的同意.       

EVEN if I granted all that I have been refuting, the friends of despotism would be no better off. There will always be a great difference between subduing a multitude and ruling a society. Even if scattered individuals were successively enslaved by one man, however numerous they might be, I still see no more than a master and his slaves, and certainly not a people and its ruler; I see what may be termed an aggregation, but not an association; there is as yet neither public good nor body politic. The man in question, even if he has enslaved half the world, is still only an individual; his interest, apart from that of others, is still a purely private interest. If this same man comes to die, his empire, after him, remains scattered and without unity, as an oak falls and dissolves into a heap of ashes when the fire has consumed it.

A people, says Grotius, can give itself to a king. Then, according to Grotius, a people is a people before it gives itself. The gift is itself a civil act, and implies public deliberation. It would be better, before examining the act by which a people gives itself to a king, to examine that by which it has become a people; for this act, being necessarily prior to the other, is the true foundation of society.

Indeed, if there were no prior convention, where, unless the election were unanimous, would be the obligation on the minority to submit to the
choice of the majority? How have a hundred men who wish for a master the right to vote on behalf of ten who do not? The law of majority voting is itself something established by convention, and presupposes unanimity, on one occasion at least.



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